The Buryat literature in the context of literary process in the beginning of the XXI century. L.S. Khalkharova, Buryat State University

Literature, as well as any other art form is in process development and improvement. For each historical era there are certain names, literary genres, the directions and styles.

Modern literature does exist, there are various competitions, the awards helping and supporting  writers-beginners, the increased activity of book publishing, and also increasing number of book salons and fairs testify.

We live in a century of new information technologies therefore the Internet, electronic resources are of great importance for modern literature. In a RuNet there is a set of the sites devoted to creativity of modern writers, there are almanacs and books of young poets, a lot of portals, servers where works of not only known, but also beginning writers are published.  A large number of electronic libraries and literary sites, where each visitor – both a reader, and a writer, and a critic, where there is no strict censorship and authorities, and where is only love to the word and the text, testifies appearance of new literary generation.

Dynamic development of modern literature is connected with process of «washing out» of genre borders, transformation and modification of traditional genres, formation of new author’s genre forms.

According to the literary critic A. Bolshakova, «By the beginning of the XXI century literature suffers the crisis of its existence, finds plurality of ways of its development,  it is split up and encapsulated; polemic is senseless and minimized – literature is becoming to stand apart, elite salon or association are getting the «mass» reader». [Bolshakova A.Yu. Modern literary process: method-artistry-ideology-image. Electronic resource: Information humanitarian portal "Knowledge". Understanding. Ability", 2010, No. 2].

Modern literature can conditionally be divided into three groups: elite literature, popular literature, fiction. The popular literature is guided by rigid genre and thematic canons (the detective story, the thriller, a romance novel, the fantasy, the historical costume novel). «The popular literature carries out function of a translator of cultural symbols from elite culture to ordinary consciousness. Its main function is simplification and transmision of standard data. The popular literature operates with extremely simple, fulfilled previous literature. Its active presence at literary process of an era — a sign of social and cultural changes». [Chernyak M. A. Popular literature of the XX century. Manual. M.: "Flint" publishing house, "Science", 2007. Page 12].

Modern Buryat literature, as well as national literatures of Russia as a whole, represents both the national phenomenon and the common culture.  Now in the Buryat literature there are more than fifty writers of different generations (members of the Union of writers of Republic of Buryatia) that present modern literary process of Buryatia.

The 60-70th: S. Norzhimaev, Ts.Tsyrendorzhiev A. Angarhaev, V.Garmaev, D. Erdyneev, G.Radnaeva, G. Bazarzhapova, V. Mitypov, H.-D. Dambaev, SH.-H. Bazarsadaeva, B. Dugarov, E. Manzar, J. Yubuhaev, B. et al Zhanchipov

80-90th: B.-M. Purbuev, Choybonov M., C. guru A.Lygdenov, Gatapov A., E. Synduev, G.Bashkuev, B. Ayushiev, S. Tumur, D.-R.Dambaev, Shagdarov B., B. Garmazhapov, B . Yundun, E.Dugarov, S. Dorzhiev, Mukhran A., A. Ulzutuev, J. Zherbaev, B. Gavrilov, etc.

2000s: B. Baldorzhiev, I. Gomboin, L. Gergenov, B. Shiribazarov, Nanzatov G., E. Batorova, B. et al Balburova S. Norzhimaev, Ts.Tsyrendorzhiev A. Angarhaev, V.Garmaev, D. Erdyneev, G.Radnaeva, G. Bazarzhapova, V. Mitypov, H.-D. Dambaev, SH.-H. Bazarsadaeva, B. Dugarov, E. Manzar, J. Yubuhaev, B. et al Zhanchipov

80-90th: B.-M. Purbuev, Choybonov M., C. guru A.Lygdenov, Gatapov A., E. Synduev, G.Bashkuev, B. Ayushiev, S. Tumur, D.-R.Dambaev, Shagdarov B., B. Garmazhapov, B . Yundun, E.Dugarov, S. Dorzhiev, Mukhran A., A. Ulzutuev, J. Zherbaev, B. Gavrilov, etc.

2000s: B. Baldorzhiev, I. Gomboin, L. Gergenov, B. Shiribazarov, Nanzatov G., E. Batorova, B. et al Balburova.

In the first decade of the XXI century there are many books representing the Buryat literature. Certainly, it is a prose. Our known prose writers  D. Erdyneev, V. Garmayev, S. Norzhimayev, A.Angarkhayev, Ts.Tsyrendorzhiyev, A. Gatapov, etc. continued active creative work.

Creativity is a difficult process, describing  not only events of our society, but also outlooks of the writer, a literature role in a modern society. Philosophical reconsideration of reality, answers to eternal questions can be not always taken from modern life. Therefore along with illumination of problems of the present there is a big process of reconsideration of history by writers who are engaged in research work very much.

Development of a historical subject in creativity of this or that writer shows his civil maturity, characterizes the direction of his art and esthetic searches.  Development of a historical subject, first of all in a novel genre, enriched the Buryat literature in the sphere of a moral perspective, statement of radical questions of essence of the person and society, promoted disclosure of ample opportunities of a realistic method in art development of reality, activization of the epic beginning in the Buryat prose.

The edition of the novel trilogy of V. Garmayev «The tenth rabdzhun» the book published in a year of celebration of 350-year anniversary of voluntary occurrence the Buryat in structure of the Russian state is of special significance.  The novel is devoted to events of three-century prescription when the Buryat people  made an important choice – to be a part of Russia, thereby having defined the future.

V. Garmayev, the author of the story «Mascot Riddle», «Oriental Cherry in Snow of Transbaikalia», «Dzhamukh’s» novel and others, got a national glory and recognition after publication of the  novels «In the Ulus Altan-hana», «Balzhin-hatun», «Babzha-bator» (united in trilogy «The Tenth Rabdzhun»).

And literary critics unanimously consider the novel «The Tenth Rabdzhun»  the main thing in creativity of V. Garmayev in which the judgment of socio-historical characters gives rise to pathos as one of the most important components of art historicism (S. Tulokhonov), «the highly artistic novel about historical destiny Buryat polecats at a turn of the XVI-XVII centuries» (S.Zh.Baldanov).

In 2012 V. Garmayev published  two books «Khoris. Phenomenon of Median Asia» in a genre the historical essay and «Dzhamukh’s» novel. Khoris are contemporaries of ancient Chinese, Khunnus, Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, and also Armenians, Jews and other people. According to the author, study of centuries-old acts of khoris testifies that Mongols of the world, including Buryats and Kalmyks of Russia, have an indisputable genetic code and potential which will cause their next blossoming, this time under a banner of those powers as a part of which they appeared centuries ago.

In the historical novel «Dzhamukha» the life is full of details of Mongolian Middle Ages, although written evidence of it is not survived . According to it , scientists were able to establish only the facts , sometimes controversial . Some historians emphasize that Dzhamukha was a traitor from birth, having a volatile temper. Others tend to idealize the friend of Chinghis Khan , making him almost the first Mongolian democrat. The author believes that this friend, who became Chinghis Khan’s brother , never betrayed.

Known form of the historical novel — mosaic ( historical information resonate with artistic beginning ) A.Angarhaev’s » Heaven and Earth «, which focuses changing times and epochs (modern time, Khunnu era , period of elevation of shanyu Mode, hiking the great generals and kings — Alexander the Great, Darius, the ruler of Athenian power Pericles).

The stories and novels of the famous writer of Buryatia Ts.Tsyrendorzhiev » Toheolgon » ( Equinox ) » Ezhel mүshed » tell about the fate of different people, our contemporaries in difficult situations , of which , as a rule, they find solutions. Story » Toheolgon » ( Equinox ) is awarded a republican literary prize.

Prototype of Anzhuur Lama, the main character of a new historical novel by Ts.Tsyrendorzhiyev » Hododoo uder baydaggүy » ( There will not be always a day ) , published in 2012 , is a well-known Buryat- Mongolian activist Agvan Dorzhiev , who has spearheaded the modern Buryat- Mongolian statehood and played a significant role in the history of Asia and Europe in 19-20th centuries.

In the first decade of the XXI century Buryat story presents the works of young authors writing in Russian: Batorova E. , B. Shiribazarova , B.Balburova , etc., which are mainly published in popular newspapers and Runet websites. Up-to-date and intensive development of the genre of the story is due to its mobility and flexibility in terms of responsiveness to changes in the socio-cultural environment. Everyday life with its realities, problems and conflicts, tragedy and farce are in the spotlight of young authors.

B. Balburova’s stories from the series » Sun , sisters and communism around the corner » — » Rounders «, » Miracle -Moscow», «Princess» , «The Poet ,» published in the journal «Baikal» for the 2013 story » Shatar » ( Chess ), written by the author in the genre of » fantasy » , was released in the literary supplement of all-Russian magazine «World of fiction .» In the works of B. Balburovoy happens fusion techniques and attitudes of realism and postmodern art techniques . A combination psychology can ¬ sary to consider the author’s game with the reader, recognizable contemporary realities can exist in the same space with fantasy and mysticism , and philosophical questions of being conceptualized in melodramatic conflicts .

Thus, the Buryat literature has its own niche in the contemporary literary process , has its own history and needs of the reader and the study and understanding . In the stories and novels of the famous writer Buryatia Ts.Tsyrendorzhieva » Toheolgon » ( Equinox ) » Ezhel mүshed » introduces the reader about the fate of different people, our contemporaries in difficult situations , of which , as a rule, they find solutions. Story » Toheolgon » ( Equinox ) awarded republican literary prize .

Prototype Anzhuur Lama , the protagonist of a new historical novel Ts Tsyrendorzhiyev » Hododoo uder baydaggүy » ( It is not always a day ) , published in 2012 , is known Buryat- Mongolian activist Aghvan Dorzhiev , who has spearheaded the modern Buryat- Mongolian statehood and played significant role in the history of Asia and Europe 19-20 centuries.

In the first decade of the XXI century Buryat story presents the works of young authors writing in Russian Batorova E. , B. Shiribazarova , B.Balburovoy , etc. , which are mainly published in popular newspapers and websites Runeta . Updating and intensive development of the genre of the story due to its mobility and flexibility in terms of responsiveness to changes in the socio-cultural environment. Daily life with all realities — problems and conflicts , tragedy and farce in the spotlight young authors.

B. Balburova’s stories  » Rounders «, » Miracle -Moscow», «Princess» , «The Poet» from the series » Sun, sisters and communism around the corner” were  published in the journal «Baikal» in 2013. The story » Shatar » ( Chess ) was written by the author in the genre of » fantasy » and was published in the literary supplement of the Russian magazine «World of fiction .» In the works of B. Balburova there is a mixture of fusion techniques, attitudes to realism and postmodern art techniques. Psychology can be mixed with the author’s game with the reader, recognizable contemporary realities can exist in the same space with fantasy and mysticism, and philosophical questions of being can be conceptualized in melodramatic conflicts .

Thus, the Buryat literature has its own place in the contemporary literary process , has its own history and a reader and needs to be studied and analyzed.

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